Six Penny Creek Community

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The African American community at Six Penny Creek was established around 1835[1]. The community can be connected to charcoal production and iron production as several members of the community were colliers. Six Penny Creek and the Underground Railroad are linked by this connection between the community and furnaces in the area.

Residents

The ages listed in parentheses and the spellings of names are taken directly from the census and may not be accurate.

Boardley/Bodley/Badley[2]

The Boardley family is linked to the Cole family. Anna Boardley, daughter of Aquilla (William) and Catherine Boardley (1789-1894)[3], married Isaac Cole. There was a "Quilty Boadly" living in Robeson, Berks County, PA at the time of the 1830 census[4]. Quilty could have been a nickname for Aquilla or the misspelling of the census taker. In his household were six "free coloured persons"[5]. Aquilla Boardley was living in East Nantmeal, Chester County, PA at the time of the 1840 census[6]. In his household were six individuals listed as "free colored persons"[7]. The next head of household listed on the 1840 census page of East Nantmeal, Chester County, PA is Wilkinson Hill, age 35-under 55, also noted to be a "free colored" person[8]. Catharine Bodely had a son named Wilkinson born about 1839 (supposed based on the 1850 census)[9]. It is possible that the Hill and Bodley families are related. William (54) and Catharine (50) "Bodley" lived with Sarah (18), Anna (17), Edward (15), George (13), Wilkinson (11), Matilda (9), Israel (6), and Henry (3) Bodley in Lower Merion Township, Montgomery County, PA at the time of the 1850 Census[10]. William was listed as being a laborer[11]. Also residing in the household was Cato Dickerson (24)[12]. Everyone in the house was listed as being born in Pennsylvania[13]. Aquilla Boardley owned land in Berks County which bordered Hopewell Furnace on the east side[14]. He died intestate[15]. In the 1860 Census of Union Township, Catharine (65), Henry (14), and Lidya (4) Badley lived with Jane (23) and Mary Ann (9) Johnson. The Badleys were listed as being born in Pennsylvania[16]. Catharine Boardley's maiden name was Amous and on her daughter's death certificate she was listed as being born in Baltimore, Maryland[17]. Catharine Boardley was the oldest resident in Chester County before she passed away in 1894[18]. Edward Boardley worked as an assistant keeper at Chester County Prison for over seventeen years prior to his death, which occurred in May of 1905 when he passed away from heart disease at his mother's grave[19].

Bendigs

In the 1850 Census of Union Township, Sarah (28) and Suzanna (5) Bendigs, Eliza Hill (33), Anna Maria Wilson (23), and William Jacobs (50) lived in the house of manufacturer Charles Clarigan and his three family members, along with a gardener and a young woman. The Bendigs were all listed as being born in Pennsylvania[20]. In the Hopewell Furnace ledgers from 1850-1853, there was a woman listed as "Sarah Bendigo" who was employed doing housework by the furnace for 107 weeks at a wage of seventy-five cents per week[21].

Brown

In the 1860 Census of Union Township, John Brown (5 months) lived with Joseph (65), George (23), Caroline (14), Martha (9), Mary (35), and Jane (41) Tolbert, as well as with George (16), Henrietta (4), Henry (11), Mary E (7), and Joshua (4) Ford. John Brown was listed as being born in Pennsylvania[22].

Butler/Butter

In the 1850 Census of Union Township, Charles (75) and Sarah (43) Butter were listed as being born in Pennsylvania. Charles Butter was a laborer. It was reported that they could neither read nor write[23]. According to Hopewell Furnace ledgers from 1850-1853, Charles Butler worked as a woodcutter, cutting forty-five cords at a rate of thirty cents per cord[24]. In the 1860 Census of Union Township, Charles (60) and Sarah (45) Butler lived with Levi (30), Ellen (25), Elizabeth (4), and John (26) Dehart, as well as Ellen Ford (6). Charles Butler was a day laborer[25]. In the 1870 Census of Union Township Charles (100) and Sarah (70) Butter lived with Mary J. Johnson (8)[26]. Charles' birthplace was listed as Maryland, whereas Sarah and Mary's were Pennsylvania[27].

Cole

The land upon which Six Penny Creek AME Church was constructed was owned by the Cole family and Isaac Cole was a founder of the church[28]. Isaac Cole (1825-1890)[29] was a woodcutter at Hopewell Furnace from 1858 to 1883[30]. In the 1860 Census of Union Township, Isaac (32), Ann (25), Ann M (11), Albert (5), and Rachel (2) Cole lived together. Isaac Cole's wife was a member of the Badley/Bodley/Boardley family. Albert was in school, and the family was listed as all being born in Pennsylvania[31]. Various members of the Six Penny Creek Community served in the Union forces during the Civil War[32]. Isaac Cole enlisted in the Union Army in 1864 at forty years of age where he became part of Company H, 22nd Regiment, United States Colored Troops[33] (the Cole family still live on the land owned by Isaac Cole and members of the Cole family have served in every war since the Civil War[34]). Isaac Cole was listed in the U.S. Civil War Draft Registrations Records of 1863-1865[35]. Isaac (50) was residing with Annie (36), Alfrid (15), Rachael (12), Howard (10), Clara (9), Charles (5), and Aushun J (2) Cole[36]. He was listed in the 1870 Census of Union Township, Berks County, PA as a laborer[37]. Isaac Close was listed as being born in Maryland, whereas the rest of his family is recorded as being born in Pennsylvania[38]. In the 1880 Census of Union Township, Isaac Cole was listed as a stone mason, as were two of his sons, Alfred and Howard[39]. He (51) lived with his wife Annie (42); his children Alfred (25), Howard (20), Clara (18), Charles (14), Arte (12) Emma (9), and Katy (6); and a collier named William Ford (41)[40]. All of Isaac Cole’s children were attending school except for Alfred[41]. Everyone residing in the house was listed as being born in Pennsylvania[42]. Isaac Cole was involved in preparing for "colored woods camp meetings" in the area[43]. In 1885 a balloon launched from Girard College by Dr. W.H. Hammond of Washington D.D. and aeronaut L.H. King of Philadelphia landed on land owned by Isaac Cole[44]. Isaac Cole passed away on August 21, 1889[45]. He was buried in Mt. Frisby AME church cemetery[46]. Cemeteries within free communities that contain the graves of Civil War veterans serve as a reminder of the community's commitment to freedom and equality[47]. In the 1900 Census of Union Township, Ida (30), Annie (12), George (9), Ralph (6), and Theodore (1) Cole were living in the house of Ida Cole’s father Robert Miller (68). Ida Cole and her children were all listed as being born in Pennsylvania. Everyone in the family except for the two youngest Cole children could read and write[48]. Also in the 1900 Census of Union Township, Howard Cole (16) was a servant and farm laborer in the house of Jacob Smith, a farmer. He could read and write and was listed as being born in Pennsylvania[49].

Curtis

In the 1870 Census of Union Township, Samuel Curtis (27), William Jacobs (65), John Spencer (19), and Elizabeth Thomas (24) lived in the house of iron master Charles Clarigan and four of his family members, as well as three other individuals. Samuel Curtis was a laborer and was listed as being born in Virginia and unable to read or write[50].

Davis

In the 1850 Census of Union Township, John Davis (36) resided by himself. He was a laborer who could neither read nor write and was listed as being born in Pennsylvania[51].

Dehart/Hart

In the 1850 Census of Union Township, John (65) was living with Levi (19), John (18), and Mary (26) Hart. Also residing with the Hart family were John (60) and Dianna (46) Nixon; Edington (39), Jane (28), George (4), and Henriette (2) Ford; and Washington Lee (60). John Hart could neither read nor write. All of the individuals in the Hart family were listed as being born in Pennsylvania[52]. John Hart was recorded in the nineteenth century Hopewell Furnace journals as cutting cord wood[53]. According to Hopewell Furnace ledgers from 1850-1853, John Hart cut 153 cords at a rate of twenty-six and a half cents per cord[54]. John Hart also worked as a post maker during this period, creating forty posts at a wage of one cent per post[55]. According to Hopewell Furnace ledgers from 1850-1853, Levi Hart also worked as a woodcutter, cutting 112 cords at a rate of twenty-seven cents per cord and as a rail splitter, splitting 200 rails at a rate of half a cent per rail[56]. In the 1860 Census of Union Township, Levi (30), Ellen (25), Elizabeth (4), and John (26) Dehart lived with Charles (60) and Sarah (45) Butler, as well as Ellen Ford (6)[57]. Levi Dehart was a day laborer[58]. Both Levi and Jonathan "Heart" are listed in the Union Township U.S. Civil War Draft Registrations Records of 1863-1865[59]. In the 1870 Census of Union Township, Levi (40) and Mary E. (37) Dehart lived together with Lyan (9) and Elizabeth (8) England[60]. Levi was listed as a laborer[61]. Mary A. England was the next head of household listed on the census[62]. They were all listed as being born in Pennsylvania[63].

Devis

In the 1860 Census of Union Township, Ellen Devis (5) lived with Peter (55) and Anna (25) Jones. She was attending school[64].

Dickanson

In the 1860 Census of Union Township, Ellen Dickanson (14), William Jacobs (55), and Latita Watson (15) lived in the house of Charles Clarigan and his five family members and four other individuals[65].

Duffy/Dutt

In the 1850 Census of Union Township, John Dutt (30) was living on the farm of Henry Flannery among six members of the Flannery family and nine other individuals. He was listed as being born in Delaware[66]. In the 1860 Census of Union Township, John Duffy (40) resided with the Lynch family and was recorded as being born in Pennsylvania[67].

England

In the 1870 Census of Union Township, Lyan (9) and Elizabeth (8) England lived in the household of Levi (40) and Mary E. (37) Dehart[68]. Mary A. England was the next head of household listed on the 1870 census[69]. They were all listed as being born in Pennsylvania[70]. In the 1880 Census of Union Township, Lizzie (20) and her sister Mary (18) England lived together. Lizzie could not read or write but her sister was in school. They were both listed as being born in Pennsylvania[71].

England

In the 1880 Census of Union Township, Samuel (23), George (25), Mary (40), and John (5) England lived together in Samuel England’s house. Both Samuel and George were colliers and their mother was keeping house. The three adults could neither read nor write[72]. In the 1890 Census of Union Township, Samuel England (50) was a woodchopper and was listed as being born in Pennsylvania[73].

Fiering

In the 1870 Census of Union Township, John Fiering (45) was listed as residing with Ammon Allbright’s family and other laborers/residents at Allbright’s hotel. John Fierling was an ostler, meaning he looked after the horses at the hotel. He was listed as being born in Pennsylvania[74].

Ford

In the 1850 Census of Union Township, Minty Ford (90) resided by herself. She was listed as being born in Pennsylvania and could not read or write[75].

Ford

In the 1860 Census of Union Township, Ellen Ford (6) was living with Charles (60) and Sarah (45) Butler, as well as Levi (30), Ellen (25), Elizabeth (4), and John (26) Dehart. She was in school[76].

Ford

According to Hopewell Furnace ledgers from 1835-1837, Edington Ford was a employed as a laborer at the furnace for just over three months at a wage of nine dollars a month[77]. In the 1850 Census of Union Township, Edington (39), Jane (28), George (4), and Henriette (2) Ford were living in the home of John (65), Levi (19), John (18), and Mary (26) Hart. Also residing with them were John (60) and Dianna (46) Nixon and Washington Lee (60). Jane Ford could neither read nor write. The Fords were listed as being born in Pennsylvania. Edington Ford was a brake maker[78]. In the 1860 Census of Union Township, George (16), Henrietta (4), Henry (11), Mary E (7), and Joshua (4) Ford lived with Joseph (65), George (23), Caroline (14), Martha (9), Mary (35), and Jane (41) Tolbert, as well as John Brown (5 months). The Fords were listed as being born in Pennsylvania[79].

Furguson

In the 1890 Census of Union Township, James Furguson (8) was a servant in the household of Gustavus Frost, a farmer from Maine. James Furguson could read and write and was listed as being born in Pennsylvania[80].

Garret

In the 1850 Census of Union Township, Matthias Garret (74) resided by himself. He was listed as being born in Pennsylvania and could not read or write[81].

Hall

In the 1890 Census of Union Township, Thomas (52), Harriet (25), and Joseph (25) Hall were living together with Thomas and Harriet Hall’s granddaughter Mary Robeson (12). Thomas and Joseph Hall were day laborers, and everyone in the Hall family could read and write[82].

Hampden

In the 1880 Census of Union Township, Rudolph (61), Hannah (57), Sallie (22), William (20), Frank (17), Lewis (14), Fred (6), Ellie (1), and John (30) Hampden lived together. Rudolph Hampden was a woodchopper who worked on Harvesting Wood. All of the Hampdens were listed as being born in Pennsylvania[83].

Herbert

In the 1870 Census of Union Township, Robert (34), Lucy (22), and Robert (2) Herbert lived together in the house of Joseph Wright, a manufacturer. Four other individuals resided in the house as well. Robert and Lucy Herbert could neither read nor write. Both listed as being born in Virginia, and their son as being born in Pennsylvania[84].

Hill

In the 1850 Census of Union Township, Eliza Hill (33), Sarah (28) and Suzanna (5) Bendigs, Anna Maria Wilson (23), and William Jacobs (50) were listed as living in the house of manufacturer Charles Clarigan and his three family members, along with a gardener and a young woman. Eliza Hill was listed as being born in Pennsylvania[85]. According to Hopewell Furnace ledgers from 1850-1853, Eliza Hill was employed doing housework by the furnace for one week at a wage of a dollar and twenty-five cents per week[86].

Jackson

In the 1850 Census of Union Township, Thomas (45) and Elizabeth Jackson (12) lived together. Thomas Jackson could neither read nor write. They were both listed as being born in Pennsylvania[87]. According to Hopewell Furnace ledgers from 1850-1853, Thomas Jackson worked as a woodcutter, cutting 120 cords at a rate of twenty-six to thirty cents per cord[88]. In the 1860 Census of Union Township, Thomas (64), Emelia (25), and Harriet (1) Jackson and Ellen (22) and Elizabeth (1) Johnson lived together. The Jacksons were all recorded as being born in Pennsylvania[89]. In the 1870 Census of Union Township, Thomas (74), Harriet (11), and Mary (10) Jackson lived with Harriet Searl (38)[90]. Thomas Jackson's place of birth, although smudged, appears to be Virginia[91]. Everyone else in the household was listed as being born in Pennsylvania[92]. Harriet Searl's occupation was listed as a housekeeper[93]. In the 1880 Census of Union Township, Thomas Jackson (86) was listed as one of the colliers in the area and was noted to have been born in Pennsylvania. He could not read or write[94].

Jacobs

According to Hopewell Furnace ledgers from 1825-1827, William Jacobs was working as a laborer and was a member of the driving team[95]. William Jacobs worked for twenty months and twelve days as a laborer at nine dollars a month and for just over four months as a member of the driving team at slightly more then eleven dollars a month[96]. According to Hopewell Furnace ledgers from 1835-1837, William Jacobs was a full-time[97] member of the driving team and was employed for twenty-four months and sixteen days at a wage of nine to ten dollars a month[98]. In the 1850 Census of Union Township, William Jacobs (50), Eliza Hill (33), Sarah (28) and Suzanna (5) Bendigs, and Anna Maria Wilson (23) lived in the house of manufacturer Charles Clarigan and his three family members, along with a gardener and a young woman. William Jacobs was listed as being born in Pennsylvania and could not read or write[99]. In the 1860 Census of Union Township, William Jacobs (55), Ellen Dickanson (14), and Latita Watson (15) lived in the house of Charles Clarigan and his five family members and four other individuals[100]. In the 1870 Census of Union Township, William Jacobs (65), Samuel Curtis (27), John Spencer (19), and Elizabeth Thomas (24) lived in the house of iron master Charles Clarigan and four of his family members, as well as three other individuals. William Jacobs was a laborer listed as being born in Pennsylvania, and he could neither read nor write[101].

Johnson

In the 1860 Census of Union Township, Jane (23) and Mary Ann (9) Johnson lived with Catharine (65), Henry (14), and Lidya (4) Badley. They were listed as being born in Pennsylvania[102].

Johnson

In the 1860 Census of Union Township, William (7), Matilda (18), and Bodly (1 month) Johnson lived with Washington (68), George (21), Edward (5), and Israel (16) Lee, as well as with Lee Tichia (25)[103]. Matilda Johnson was attending school. and they were all listed as being born in Pennsylvania[104].

Johnson

In the 1860 Census of Union Township, Ellen (22) and Elizabeth (1) Johnson lived with Thomas (64), Emelia (25), and Harriet (1) Jackson. They were both recorded as being born in Pennsylvania[105].

Jones

In the 1850 Census of Union Township, Peter Jones (43) lived on the farm of Westley and his six person family. He was listed as a laborer born in Pennsylvania who could neither read nor write[106]. According to Hopewell Furnace ledgers from 1850-1853, Peter Jones worked as a woodcutter, cutting thirty-four cords at a rate of twenty-seven cents per cord[107]. In the 1860 Census of Union Township, Peter (55) and Anna (25) Jones lived with Ellen Devis (5). Peter Jones was a day laborer[108].

In the 1870 Census of Union Township, Davis (34), Catharine (35), Angeline (8), Susan (2), and Sarah (1) Jones lived together[109]. Davis Jones was a laborer and Catharine was keeping house[110]. They were all listed as being born in Pennsylvania[111].

Lee

In the 1850 Census of Union Township, Washington Lee (60) was living in the home of John (65), Levi (19), John (18), and Mary (26) Hart. Also residing in the house were John (60) and Dianna (46) Nixon and Edington (39), Jane (28), George (4), and Henriette (2) Ford. Washington Lee could neither read nor write and was listed as being born in Pennsylvania. Washington Lee was listed as a laborer[112].In the 1860 Census of Union Township, Washington (68), George (21), Edward (5), and Israel (16) Lee lived with William (7), Matilda (18), and Bodly (1 month) Johnson, as well as Lee Tichia (25). The Lees were listed as being born in Pennsylvania[113].

Miller

In the 1870 Census of Union Township, Robert (37), Rosanna (24), Rebecca (3), Mary (1), and Jerimiah (37) Miller were living together. Robert and Jerimiah were laborers listed as being born in Virginia. The rest of the Millers were recorded as being born in Pennsylvania[114]. According to the 1880 Census of Union Township, Robert (41), Ida (10), and Jere (44) Miller lived together. Robert Miller was a farmer and his brother Jere Miller was one of the colliers in the area. Ida was attending school and Jere could not read or write. They were all listed as being born in Pennsylvania[115]. In the 1890 Census of Union Township, Robert Miller (68) was living in the house he owned with his widowed daughter Ida Cole (30) and her four children. He was a farmer and was listed as being born in Virginia[116].

Molson/Hilton

In the 1860 Census of Union Township, James (38), Harriet (24), Anneta (25), Margaret (15), David (10), Mary (8), James (4), and Emma (1month) Molson lived together and were all listed as being born in Pennsylvania. James Molson was a day laborer and Margaret, David, and Mary attended school[117]. In the 1870 Census of Union Township, James (35), Anna (34), Harriet (10), William (14), Julia (9 months), and Amanda (14) Hilton lived together. James, a laborer, and Anna, keeping house, could not read or write. Anna was listed as being born in Maryland and Amanda in Delaware, but the rest of the family was recorded as being from Pennsylvania[118].

Nixon

In the 1850 Census of Union Township, Jehu/John (60) and Dianna (46) Nixon resided in the home of John (65), Levi (19), John (18), and Mary (26) Hart[119][[1]]. Also residing with them were Edington (39), Jane (28), George (4), and Henriette (2) Ford and Washington. The Nixons were listed as being born in Pennsylvania[120]. John Nixon was a forgeman[121]. In the 1860 Census of Union Township, John (68) and Dianna (50) Nixon resided with Rosanna Watson (17), the daughter of John and Mary Watson from the 1850 Census[122][[2]]. In the 1870 Census of Union Township, Dinah Nixon (68) lived alone, keeping house[123][[3]]. She was listed as being born in Pennsylvania[124]. In the 1880 Census of Union Township, Dinah (Dianna) Nixon (74) was living alone[125][[4]]. She was keeping house and was listed as being born in Pennsylvania[126].

Prince[127]

In the 1890 Census of Union Township, Charles (34), Harriet (34), Ida (18), Ervin (18), Charles (13), Frank (7), Lyly (5), Wesley (2), and Ella (0) lived together. The Prince family was interesting for the time period as the marriage was an interracial one. Charles and Harriet Prince were listed as being married for four years in the 1900 census[128], and for six years in the 1910 census[129]. Charles Prince was a day laborer[130]. The entire family was recorded as being born in Pennsylvania[131], although in the 1910 census Charles Prince was recorded as being born in Ohio[132]. Everyone in the house who was thirteen or older could read and write, except for Ida[133].

Robeson

In the 1890 Census of Union Township, Mary Robeson (12) was living with her grandparents and her uncle. She could read and write and was listed as being born in Pennsylvania[134].

Seymore

In the 1890 Census of Union Township, Howard Seymore (30) lived in the Flanery household where he was a servant. He could read and write and was listed as being born in Pennsylvania[135].

Spencer

In the 1870 Census of Union Township, John Spencer (19), William Jacobs (65), Samuel Curtis (27), and Elizabeth Thomas (24) lived in the house of iron master Charles Clarigan and four of his family members, as well as three other individuals. John Spencer was a laborer and was listed as being born in Pennsylvania[136].

Tichia

In the 1860 Census of Union Township, Lee Tichia (25) lived with Washington (68), George (21), Edward (5), and Israel (16) Lee, as well as William (7), Matilda (18), and Bodly (1 month) Johnson. Lee Tichia was listed as being born in Pennsylvania[137].

Thomas

In the 1870 Census of Union Township, Elizabeth Thomas (24), William Jacobs (65), Samuel Curtis (27), and John Spencer (19) lived in the house of iron master Charles Clarigan and four of his family members, as well as three other individuals. Elizabeth Thomas was a domestic servant and was listed as being born in Pennsylvania[138].

Tolbert

According to Hopewell Furnace ledgers from 1850-1853, Joseph Tolbert worked as a laborer for twenty-six days at a wage of ten dollars per month[139]. In the 1860 Census of Union Township, Joseph (65), George (23), Caroline (14), Martha (9), Mary (35), and Jane (41) Tolbert lived together with George (16), Henrietta (4), Henry (11), Mary E (7), and Joshua (4) Ford, as well as John Brown (5 months). The Tolberts were listed as being born in Pennsylvania[140].

Watson

In the 1850 Census of Union Township, John (35) lived with Mary (25), Roseanna (8), Catharine (4), and Jehu (1) Watson. John was listed as a laborer and the entire family was noted as being born in Pennsylvania[141]. In the 1860 Census of Union Township, Rosanna Watson (17) lived with John (68) and Dianna (50) Nixon. Rosanna Watson was attending school[142].

Watson

In the 1860 Census of Union Township, John (45), Louisa (40), Julia (12), Maria (10), Emma (4), and Caroline (2) lived together. Julia was attending school and they were all listed as being born in Pennsylvania[143].

Watson

In the 1860 Census of Union Township, Latita Watson (15), William Jacobs (55), and Ellen Dickanson (14) lived in the house of Charles Clarigan and his five family members and four other individuals[144].

Wilson

In the 1850 Census of Union Township, Anna Maria Wilson (23), Eliza Hill (33), Sarah (28) and Suzanna (5) Bendigs, and William Jacobs (50) lived in the house of manufacturer Charles Clarigan and his three family members, along with a gardener and a young woman. Wilson was listed as being born in Pennsylvania and attended school[145].

Notes

  1. National Park Service 2015
  2. Find a Grave
  3. Find a Grave
  4. United States Census 1830
  5. United States Census 1830
  6. Ancestry.com, United States Census 1840
  7. Ancestry.com, United States Census 1840
  8. Ancestry.com, United States Census 1840
  9. Ancestry.com, United States Census 1840
  10. Ancestry.com
  11. Ancestry.com
  12. Ancestry.com, United States Census 1850
  13. Ancestry.com, United States Census 1850
  14. Ancestry.com 2015
  15. Ancestry.com 2015
  16. United States Census, 1860
  17. Pennsylvania Historic and Museum Commission
  18. The Semi-Weekly New Era, 31 October 1894, 2
  19. The Philadelphia Inquirer, 25 May 1905, 1
  20. United States Census, 1850
  21. Walker 1969, 494
  22. United States Census, 1860
  23. United States Census, 1850
  24. Walker 1969, 494
  25. United States Census, 1860
  26. United States Census, 1870
  27. United States Census, 1870
  28. Speros and Lynch 2013, 47
  29. Find a Grave
  30. Crimmins 2018
  31. United States Census, 1860
  32. Homan 1958
  33. Hebblethwaite 2010
  34. Homan 1958
  35. National Archives and Records Administration
  36. United States Census, 1870
  37. United States Census, 1870
  38. United States Census, 1870
  39. United States Census, 1880
  40. United States Census, 1880
  41. United States Census, 1880
  42. United States Census, 1880
  43. Reading Times 3 September 1882, 4
  44. Reading Times 14 March 1885, 1
  45. Reading Times 22 August 1889, 3
  46. Speros and Lynch 2013, 47
  47. LaRoche
  48. United States Census, 1900
  49. United States Census, 1900
  50. United States Census, 1870
  51. United States Census, 1850
  52. United States Census, 1850
  53. National Park Service 2015
  54. Walker 1969, 494
  55. Walker 1969, 494
  56. Walker 1969, 494
  57. United States Census, 1860
  58. United States Census, 1860
  59. National Archives and Records Administration
  60. United States Census, 1870
  61. United States Census, 1870
  62. United States Census, 1870
  63. United States Census, 1870
  64. United States Census, 1860
  65. United States Census, 1860
  66. United States Census, 1850
  67. United States Census, 1860
  68. United States Census, 1870
  69. United States Census, 1870
  70. United States Census, 1870
  71. United States Census, 1880
  72. United States Census, 1880
  73. United States Census, 1900
  74. United States Census, 1870
  75. United States Census, 1850
  76. United States Census, 1860
  77. Walker 1969, 492
  78. United States Census, 1850
  79. United States Census, 1860
  80. United States Census, 1900
  81. United States Census, 1850
  82. United States Census, 1900
  83. United States Census, 1880
  84. United States Census, 1870
  85. United States Census, 1850
  86. Walker 1969, 494
  87. United States Census, 1850
  88. Walker 1969, 494
  89. United States Census, 1860
  90. United States Census, 1870
  91. United States Census, 1870
  92. United States Census, 1870
  93. United States Census, 1870
  94. United States Census, 1880
  95. Walker 1969, 491
  96. Walker 1969, 491
  97. Walker 1969, 492
  98. Walker 1969, 493
  99. United States Census, 1850
  100. United States Census, 1860
  101. United States Census, 1870
  102. United States Census, 1860
  103. United States Census, 1860
  104. United States Census, 1860
  105. United States Census, 1860
  106. United States Census, 1850
  107. Walker 1969, 494
  108. United States Census, 1860
  109. United States Census, 1870
  110. United States Census, 1870
  111. United States Census, 1870
  112. United States Census, 1850
  113. United States Census, 1860
  114. United States Census, 1870
  115. United States Census, 1880
  116. United States Census, 1900
  117. United States Census, 1860
  118. United States Census, 1870
  119. United States Census, 1850
  120. United States Census, 1850
  121. United States Census, 1850
  122. United States Census, 1860
  123. United States Census, 1870
  124. United States Census, 1870
  125. United States Census, 1880
  126. United States Census, 1880
  127. United States Census, 1910
  128. United States Census, 1900
  129. United States Census, 1910
  130. United States Census, 1900
  131. United States Census, 1900
  132. United States Census, 1910
  133. United States Census, 1900
  134. United States Census, 1900
  135. United States Census, 1900
  136. United States Census, 1870
  137. United States Census, 1860
  138. United States Census, 1870
  139. Walker 1969, 494
  140. United States Census, 1860
  141. United States Census, 1850
  142. United States Census, 1860
  143. United States Census, 1860
  144. United States Census, 1860
  145. United States Census, 1850

References

  • Ancestry.com. Pennsylvania, U.S., Wills and Probate Records, 1683-1993 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2015.[5]
  • Ancestry.com. 1830 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2010. Images reproduced by FamilySearch.[6]
  • Ancestry.com. 1840 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2010. Images reproduced by FamilySearch. [7]
  • Ancestry.com. 1850 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2009. Images reproduced by FamilySearch.[8]
  • Crimmins, Peter. 2018. Forging a Sense of Hopewell Furnace’s History Through its Citizens and Visitors. WHYY.[9]
  • Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 01 February 2021), memorial page for Howard H Cole (26 Jul 1861–10 Nov 1936), Find a Grave Memorial no. 203531937, citing Saint Michaels Cemetery, Birdsboro, Berks County, Pennsylvania, USA ; Maintained by N.D. Scheidt (contributor 47099775).[10]
  • Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 22 November 2020), memorial page for Pvt Isaac Cole (1825–1890), Find a Grave Memorial no. 101121496, citing Mount Frisby Church Graveyard, Berks County, Pennsylvania, USA ; Maintained by N.D. Scheidt (contributor 47099775).[11]
  • Hebblethwaite, Frank. 2010. “Isaac Cole, 32nd Regiment U.S.C.T.”[12]
  • Homan, Wayne E. 1958. The Underground Railroad. Historical Review of Berks County, Berks History Center.[13]
  • LaRoche, Cheryl Janifer. 2017. Free Black Communities and the Underground Railroad: The Geography of Resistance. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press.
  • National Archives and Records Administration (NARA); Washington, D.C. Consolidated Lists of Civil War Draft Registration Records (Provost Marshal General's Bureau; Consolidated Enrollment Lists, 1863-1865); Record Group: 110, Records of the Provost Marshal General's Bureau (Civil War); Collection Name: Consolidated Enrollment Lists, 1863-1865 (Civil War Union Draft Records); NAI: 4213514; Archive Volume Number: 1 of 2.[14][15]
  • National Park Service, Hopewell Furnace. 2015. African-Americans at Hopewell Furnace. National Park Service: U.S. Department of the Interior.[16]
  • Pennsylvania Historic and Museum Commission; Harrisburg, PA; Pennsylvania (State). Death Certificates, 1906-1968; Certificate Number Range: 085801-089600.[17]
  • The Philadelphia Inquirer. 1905. Dies on Mother's Grave - Chester County Prison Official Expires While Cutting Grass, May 25, 1905.[18]
  • Reading Times. 1883. Colored Woods Meeting Near Geigertown, September 3, 1883.[19]
  • Reading Times. 1885. A Balloon Landing Along the Hay Creek, March 14, 1885.[20]
  • Reading Times. 1889. Birdsboro Local News, August 22, 1889.[21]
  • The Semi-Weekly New Era. 1831. Personal, October 31, 1894.[22]
  • Speros, Susan and Michelle Lynch. 2013. Prioritizing Berks County Cultural and Historical Resources Within and Nearby the Hopewell Big Woods. Friends of Hopewell Furnace NHS.[23]
  • United States Census, 1850, database with images, FamilySearch [24] : 9 April 2016, Pennsylvania > Berks > Union > image 22 of 40; citing NARA microfilm publication M432 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.).
  • United States Census, 1860, database with images, FamilySearch [25] : 24 March 2017, Pennsylvania > Berks > Union Township > image 9 of 53; from "1860 U.S. Federal Census - Population," database, Fold3.com (http://www.fold3.com : n.d.); citing NARA microfilm publication M653 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.).
  • United States Census, 1870, database with images, FamilySearch [26]1 : 15 June 2019, Pennsylvania > Berks > Union > image 52 of 56; citing NARA microfilm publication M593 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.).
  • United States Census, 1880, database with images, FamilySearch [27] : 24 December 2015, Pennsylvania > Berks > Union > ED 68 > image 24 of 31; citing NARA microfilm publication T9, (National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C., n.d.).
  • United States Census, 1900, database with images, FamilySearch [28] : 5 August 2014), Pennsylvania > Berks > ED 115 Union Township > image 20 of 24; citing NARA microfilm publication T623 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.).
  • United States Census, 1910, database with images, FamilySearch [29] : 24 June 2017, Pennsylvania > Berks > Union > ED 123 > image 4 of 26; citing NARA microfilm publication T624 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.).
  • Walker, Joseph E. 1969. A Comparison of Negro and White Labor in a Charcoal Iron Community. Labor History 10, no.3 (June): 487-497.